If you have been laid off or if your company is closing, you may be worried about losing your employer-based benefits, particularly health insurance. Having no health insurance can be a frightening experience, especially if your employer health plan provides coverage for your family. Also, you may be most concerned if you or a family member has a chronic illness that requires frequent visits with your doctor or the need for expensive prescription medications.
It is important to try and find some type of health insurance plan during your period of unemployment. If you or a family member seeks care without health insurance coverage, you’ll be stuck paying the entire bill. You may be taking an unnecessary financial risk by not having health insurance. While going without health insurance may seem cost-effective when you have no or less income, it may not be! The leading cause of personal bankruptcy in the United States is illness and medical bills.
Fortunately, if you are handed a pink slip, you have a number of options to remain insured for some period of time following your layoff.
Spouse or Partner Health Insurance
Getting health insurance through your spouse’s (or domestic partner’s) employer may be your most cost-effective option. Many employer health insurance plans allow their employees to add family members who have been laid off – your spouse can add you to her/his plan. If your job provided the health insurance for the entire family, your spouse can initiate coverage for the family.
Most health insurance plans provided by large companies have “special enrollment” provisions that allow the immediate addition of a family member without having to wait for the annual enrollment period. If you are able to use your spouse’s health insurance, make sure to apply within 30 days of being laid off—some health insurance plans may not automatically accept you for immediate coverage or may limit coverage for a preexisting medical condition if you wait for more than 30 days.
If your former employer has 20 or more employees, the company is required by a 1986 federal law to offer you the option to pay for an extension of your health insurance coverage for at least 18 months. This law is known as COBRA, which stands for Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act.
At the time you are laid off, your employer must inform you in writing about your rights under COBRA. You then have 60 days from the date of the notice or the date your health insurance ended to enroll, or sign up for coverage under COBRA. If your company went out of business or went bankrupt, COBRA will not be available.
When you sign up for COBRA, you will continue to have similar health insurance and the same health plan benefits that you had while employed. However, you must pay the health insurance premium that your former employer was paying for you. The employer may also add a 2% administrative fee.
Depending on your individual circumstances, COBRA can be very expensive. If you are getting coverage for yourself, you may have to pay up to $400 per month; family coverage may be more than $1000 per month. These amounts will vary depending on the benefits provided by your employer’s health plan.
$1,000 every month is a lot of money and probably more than you expected to pay, especially if you also lost your income and are collecting unemployment insurance. For some workers, the COBRA payments can amount to more than 60 to 70 percent of their monthly unemployment check. Many laid-off workers who are eligible to continue their health insurance coverage through COBRA cannot afford to do so.
If you cannot afford COBRA, there may be other health insurance options that will provide the health coverage benefits that you need for you and your family.
COBRA is regulated by the U.S. Department of Labor. The department’s website has a list of frequently asked questions about COBRA. You also can call 866-444-3272 for information or assistance.
Note: COBRA will not change with the passage of the health reform legislation
Private Health Insurance
You can buy health insurance directly from a health insurance company, such as Blue Cross, or through an insurance agent who represents an insurance company. In most states, you can buy health insurance online from reliable organizations (such as eHealthInsurance). You should consider consulting with a licensed insurance agent (this may be the same agent who handles your auto and homeowners insurance) who may be able to help you find a health insurance plan that is less expensive than COBRA and still fits your needs.
You can easily compare premiums and health benefits online. Health insurance companies vary in what type of health plans they offer and by shopping around you may be able to save money. For example:
- John Skillset, age 36, was laid-off from a middle management position at an investment banking firm. His family coverage through COBRA is $1150 per month. He was able to get adequate coverage for his family from a not-for-profit insurance company for $785 per month. Although this plan requires that he pay for the first $3000 of medical expenses (the deductable), his family is healthy and has had low medical costs in the past.
- Jenny Techwhiz, age 24, was laid-off during a downsizing at a computer software company. Her individual coverage through COBRA is $370 per month. She was able to find a special plan from Blue Cross for people ages 18-26 for $280 per month.
You also may be able to save money by purchasing group health insurance through an association such as a professional or trade organization, college alumni association, a fraternal organization, club membership, or a religious group. Health plans provided by these groups are generally less expensive than individual health insurance coverage.
Page 2 includes information about the impact of the health reform legislation passed in March 2010, Short Term Health Insurance Coverage, and Low-Cost and Free Options.